Quantification and Seasonal Variation of Transboundary Pollution and Water Flow in the Streams of Central Punjab, Pakistan

Abdullah Yasar, Tayyaba Alam, Amtul Bari Tabinda, Mariyam Khan

Abstract


Transboundary pollution and water harvesting from the upstream countries is a burning issue of today. In context of India-Pakistan situation there is a dire need to evaluate the temporal changes in quantity and quality of water. This study was aimed to determine temporal variation in flow rate and pollution level of the four trans boundary streams (Hudiara, Deg, Aik and Basanta). Water samples were collected at the entry points and were analyzed for different parameters. Hudiara showed BOD5 (150 mg/L), high fecal contamination level (> 1600 MPN/100 ml) and total suspended solids (400 mg/L) whereas cooper contamination was also high (0.1238mg/l). These high pollution levels can directly affect aquatic and human life by entering into the food chain through agriculture as well as livestock. There was a significant temporal variation in the flows of the streams as flow rate of Hudiara was maximum in spring season whereas for Aik, it was highest (582 cusecs) in summer. Basanta showed highest flow rate (1286 cusecs) in winter season and minimum in spring (<200 cusecs) while complete unavailability of water in Deg during spring and summers showed water harvesting of these streams on the upstream side.

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