Correlation Between Heat Input and Mechanical Properties of Submerged Friction Stir Processed TIG-Welded AA8011/AA6082 Dissimilar Joint: Sampling Aspect
This paper reports on the relationship between heat input and microstructure of the submerged friction stir processed TIG-welded AA8011/AA6082 dissimilar joint. The AA8011/AA6082 dissimilar joint was produced through the tungsten inert gas (TIG) technique before processing. The dissimilar welded joint was then subjected to a friction stir processing (FSP) technique that was fully submerged underwater. The temperature profile was measured using the K-type probes installed along the joint, and the properties of the joint were studied using various laboratory equipment. The variation in heat input was studied in correlation with the microstructural arrangement. The thermal instability was observed at the start of the joint, while thermal stability was observed from the middle to the end of the joint. The average grain size ranged between 5mm and 8 mm: the average grain size of 8 mm was measured on the sampled specimen from the start of the joint, while 5 mm was measured on the sampled specimen from the end of the joint. The tensile properties of the joint increased gradually along the joint. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) recorded for the sampled specimen from the start of the joint was 76.9 MPa with a percentage elongation of 8.79%, while that of the sampled specimen from the middle of the joint was 80.3 MPa with a percentage elongation of 21.82%, and the UTS for the sampled specimen from the end of the joint was 87.2 MPa with a percentage elongation of 24.12%. The microhardness at the stir zone of the joint varied between 52 HV and 64 HV; these values were lower than AA6082 base metal but higher than AA8011 base metal. The lower microhardness value corresponds to the sampled specimen from the start of the joint, while the higher microhardness value corresponds to the sampled specimen from the end of the joint.
 F. Chai, D. Zhang, Y. Li, W. Zhang, High strain rate superplasticity of a fine-grained AZ91 magnesium alloy prepared by submerged friction stir processing, Mat. Sc. Eng. A 568(2013) 40-48
 S. Mabuwa, V. Msomi, Effect of Friction Stir Processing on Gas Tungsten Arc-Welded and Friction Stir-Welded 5083-H111 Aluminium Alloy Joints. Adv Mater Sci Eng. 2019, 3510236.
 S. Mabuwa, V. Msomi, The effect of friction stir processing on the friction stir welded AA1050-H14 and AA6082-T6 joints, Mat. Today: Proc 26(2):(2020) 193-199
 A. Kurt, I. Uygur, E. Cete, Surface modification of aluminium by friction stir processing, J. Mat. Proc. Tech 211(3):(2011) 313-317
 M. Sudhakar, C.S. Rao, K.M. Saheb, Production of Surface Composites by Friction Stir Processing-A Review, Mat. Today: Proc. 5(1)(1):(2018) 929-935
 G. Huang, J. Wu, W. Hou, Y. Shen, Microstructure, mechanical properties and strengthening mechanism of titanium particle reinforced aluminum matrix composites produced by submerged friction stir processing, Mat. Sc. Eng A 734(2018) 353-363
 H.Seifiyan, M.H. Sohi, M. Ansari, D. Ahmadkhaniha, M. Saremi, Influence of friction stir processing conditions on corrosion behavior of AZ31B magnesium alloy. J Magnes Alloy 7(4):(2019) 605–616.
 S. Bharti, V. Dutta, S. Sharma, N.D. Ghetiya, Investigating the effect of tool speed on the mechanical properties of Al5052 processed by friction stir processing. Mater Today Proc 2020;In Press
 C. Chanakyan , S. Sivasankar, M. Meignanamoorthy, M. Ravichandran, T. Muralidharan, Experimental investigation on influence of process parameter on friction stir processing of AA6082 using response surface methodology. Mater Today Proc 21(21)(1):(2020) 231–236
 C.Y. Ma, L. Zhou, R.X. Zhang, D.G. Li, F.Y. Shu, X.G. Song, Y.Q. Zhao, Enhancement in mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of 2507 duplex stainless steel via friction stir processing. J Mater Res Technol 9(4):(2020) 8296–305.
 X. Yang, Z. Yan, P. Dong, B. Cheng, J. Zhang, T. Zhang, H. Zhang, W. Wang.2020. Surface modification of aluminum alloy by incorporation of AlCoCrFeNi high entropy alloy particles via underwater friction stir processing. Surf Coatings Technol. 385, 125438
 P. Xue, B.L. Xiao, Z.Y. Ma. Achieving Large-area Bulk Ultrafine Grained Cu via Submerged Multiple-pass Friction Stir Processing. J Mater Sci Technol. 29(12):(2013) 1111–1115.
 X. Feng, H. Liu, J.C. Lippold, Microstructure characterization of the stir zone of submerged friction stir processed aluminum alloy 2219. Mater Charact 82(2013) 97–102.
 F. Chai, D. Zhang, Y. Li Y, Microstructures and tensile properties of submerged friction stir processed AZ91 magnesium alloy. J Magnes Alloy 3(3):(2015) 203–9.
 K. Selvam, A. Prakash, H.S. Grewal, H.S. Arora. Structural refinement in austenitic stainless steel by submerged friction stir processing. Mater Chem Phys 197(2017) 200–207.
 B. Darras, E. Kishta, Submerged friction stir processing of AZ31 Magnesium alloy. Mater Des. 47(2013) 133–137.
 G. Cao, D. Zhang, F. Chai, W. Zhang, C. Qiu, Superplastic behavior and microstructure evolution of a fine-grained Mg-Y-Nd alloy processed by submerged friction stir processing. Mater Sci Eng A 642(2015) 157–166
 S. Mabuwa, V. Msomi, Comparative analysis between normal and submerged friction stir processed friction stir welded dissimilar aluminium alloy joints. J Mater Res Technol 9(5):(2020) 9632–9644.
 H. Mehdi, R.S. Mishra. Effect of Friction Stir Processing on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of TIG Welded Joint of AA6061 and AA7075. Metallogr Microstruct Anal 9(3):(2020) 403–418.
 S. Mabuwa, V. Msomi.2020. Fatigue behaviour of the multi-pass friction stir processed AA8011-H14 and AA6082-T651 dissimilar joints. Eng Fail Anal 118,104876.
 S. Mabuwa, V. Msomi.2020. The impact of submerged friction stir processing on the friction stir welded dissimilar joints, Mat Res Express 7(9), 096513
 K. Navneet, B. Mahesh, P. Sharma, V.J. Badheka, Design-of-experiments application in the friction stir welding of aluminium alloy AA 8011-h14 for structural application. Multidiscip Model Mater Struct . 16(3):(2019) 606–622.
 N. Khanna, P. Sharma, M. Bharati, V.J. Badheka.2019. Friction stir welding of dissimilar aluminium alloys AA 6061-T6 and AA 8011-h14: a novel study. J Brazilian Soc Mech Sci Eng 42(1), 7.
 D. Birsan, E. Scutelnicu, D. Visan. Behaviour Simulation of Aluminium Alloy 6082-T6 during Friction Stir Welding and Tungsten Inert Gas Welding. Int Conf Manuf Eng Qual Prod Syst MEQAPS - Proc. 2011 Jan 1;
 V. Msomi, N. Mbana.2020. Mechanical properties of friction stir welded AA1050-H14 and AA5083-H111 joint: Sampling aspect. Metals 10(2), 214.
 M. Paidar, V.R. Vaira, A. Khorram, O.O. Ojo, A. Rasoulpouraghdam, I. Pustokhina. Dissimilar modified friction stir clinching of AA2024-AA6061 aluminum alloys: Effects of materials positioning. J Mater Res Technol. 9(3):(2020)6037–6047.
 M.D. Sameer, A.K. Birru. Mechanical and metallurgical properties of friction stir welded dissimilar joints of AZ91 magnesium alloy and AA 6082-T6 aluminium alloy. J Magnes Alloy. 7(2):(2019) 264–271.
 S.T. Azeez, E.T. Akinlabi. Effect of processing parameters on microhardness and microstructure of a double-sided dissimilar friction stir welded aa6082-t6 and aa7075-t6 aluminum alloy. Mater Today: Proc 5(9)(3):(2018) 18315–18324.
 B. Safarbali, M. Shamanian, A. Eslami, Effect of post-weld heat treatment on joint properties of dissimilar friction stir welded 2024-T4 and 7075-T6 aluminum alloys. Trans Nonferrous Met Soc China 28(7):(2018):1287–1297.
 C. Sharma, D.K. Dwivedi, P. Kumar, Influence of pre-weld temper conditions of base metal on microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir weld joints of Al-Zn-Mg alloy AA7039. Mater Sci Eng A 620(2015) 107–119.
 P. Cavaliere, A. De Santis, F. Panella, A. Squillace, Effect of welding parameters on mechanical and microstructural properties of dissimilar AA6082–AA2024 joints produced by friction stir welding. Mater Des 30(3):(2009) 609–16.
 M. Cabibbo, H.J. McQueen, E. Evangelista, S. Spigarelli, M. Di Paola, A. Falchero, Microstructure and mechanical property studies of AA6056 friction stir welded plate. Mater Sci Eng A. 460–461(2007) 86–94.