Characterization of Concrete Incorporating Waste Polythene Bags Fibers

Fatima Mehvish, Ali Ahmed, Muhammad Mazhar Saleem, Muhammad Azhar Saleem


In an attempt to create environmental friendly concrete, an investigation was carried out on the effects of adding non-biodegradable plastic fibers obtained from shredded waste polythene terephthalate bags on fresh and hardened properties of concrete. A pre-defined concrete mix was adopted with water to cement ratio of 0.45. Apart from control specimen, various concrete mixtures were produced by adding 0.5% to 1.5% waste polythene fibers by weight of cement while keeping all other fractions same. The novelty of this project, as per author’s knowledge, is in the size of fibers which was kept 2cm × 3cm. Larger size was selected as smaller polythene fibers would break very easily. Various tests performed on fresh and hardened concrete show that addition of plastic fibers change fresh-state, physical and mechanical properties of concrete. Experimental results revealed that the addition of plastics fibers causes increase in the workability of fresh concrete. However, the addition of these fibers reduces the density of hardened concrete and an increase the porosity and water absorption. Furthermore, on addition of these fibers reduction in the mechanical properties of concrete was observed too. Addition of 1.5% fibers caused a reduction of 9.7%, 6.9% and 12.4% in split tensile strength, compressive strength and flexural strength of concrete respectively. Based on the experimental results it might be argued that the various strength related parameters decrease on addition of fibers but the reduction may be considered small as compared to the environmental friendly nature of this material.

Full Text:



J. Hopewell, R. Dvorak, and E. Kosior, “Plastics recycling: Challenges and opportunities,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol. 364, no. 1526. Royal Society, pp. 2115–2126, Jul-2009.

B. G. Mwanza and C. Mbohwa, “Drivers to Sustainable Plastic Solid Waste Recycling: A Review,” Procedia Manuf., vol. 8, pp. 649–656, 2017.

R. U. Halden, “Plastics and Health Risks,” Annu. Rev. Public Health, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 179–194, Mar. 2010.

E. J. North and R. U. Halden, “Plastics and environmental health: The road ahead,” Reviews on Environmental Health, vol. 28, no. 1. pp. 1–8, Apr-2013.

A. M. Azhdarpour, M. R. Nikoudel, and M. Taheri, “The effect of using polyethylene terephthalate particles on physical and strength-related properties of concrete; A laboratory evaluation,” Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 109, pp. 55–62, Apr. 2016.

R. P. Borg, O. Baldacchino, and L. Ferrara, “Early age performance and mechanical characteristics of recycled PET fibre reinforced concrete,” Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 108, pp. 29–47, Apr. 2016.

D. Foti, “Preliminary analysis of concrete reinforced with waste bottles PET fibers,” Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 1906–1915, Apr. 2011.

U. G. Jensen, L. C. Hoang, H. B. Joergensen, and L. S. Fabrin, “Shear strength of heavily reinforced concrete members with circular cross section,” Eng. Struct., vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 617–626, Mar. 2010.

R. Sharma and P. P. Bansal, “Use of different forms of waste plastic in concrete - A review,” Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 112. Elsevier Ltd, pp. 473–482, Jan-2016.

J. Byung-Wan, S.-K. Park, and K. Cheol-Hwan, “Mechanical Properties of Polyester Polymer Concrete Using Recycled Polyethylene Terephthalate,” ACI Struct. Journal;, vol. 103, no. 2, pp. 219–225, 2006.

Z. Bayasi and J. Zeng, “Properties of polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete,” Mater. J., vol. 90, no. 6, pp. 605–610, 1993.

E. Ganjian, M. Khorami, and A. A. Maghsoudi, “Scrap-tyre-rubber replacement for aggregate and filler in concrete,” Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 1828–1836, May 2009.

G. Li, S. S. Pang, and S. I. Ibekwe, “FRP tube encased rubberized concrete cylinders,” Mater. Struct. Constr., vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 233–243, 2011.

R. Al-Rousan, R. Haddad, and K. Al-Sa’di, “Effect of sulfates on bond behavior between carbon fiber reinforced polymer sheets and concrete,” Mater. Des., vol. 43, pp. 237–248, 2013.

Y. Wang, “Fiber and textile waste Utilization,” Waste and Biomass Valorization, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 135–143, Mar. 2010.

F. Welle, “Twenty years of PET bottle to bottle recycling - An overview,” Resources, Conservation and Recycling, vol. 55, no. 11. pp. 865–875, Sep-2011.

K. S. Rebeiz, “Time-temperature properties of polymer concrete using recycled PET,” Cem. Concr. Compos., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 119–124, 1995.

A. A. Al-manaseer and T. r. Dalal, “Concrete Containing Plastic Aggregates,” Concr. Int., vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 47–52, 1997.

P. Soroushian, J. Plasencia, and S. Ravanbakhsh, “Assessment of reinforcing effects of recycled plastic and paper in concrete,” ACI Mater. J., vol. 100, no. 3, pp. 203–207, May 2003.

O. Y. Marzouk, R. M. Dheilly, and M. Queneudec, “Valorization of post-consumer waste plastic in cementitious concrete composites,” Waste Manag., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 310–318, 2007.

M. Batayneh, I. Marie, and I. Asi, “Use of selected waste materials in concrete mixes,” Waste Manag., vol. 27, no. 12, pp. 1870–1876, 2007.

Y. W. Choi, D. J. Moon, J. S. Chung, and S. K. Cho, “Effects of waste PET bottles aggregate on the properties of concrete,” Cem. Concr. Res., vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 776–781, Apr. 2005.

G. Martínez-Barrera, E. Vigueras-Santiago, M. Martínez-López, M. C. S. Ribeiro, A. J. M. Ferreira, and W. Brostow, “Luffa fibers and gamma radiation as improvement tools of polymer concrete,” Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 47, pp. 86–91, 2013.

R. Siddique, J. Khatib, and I. Kaur, “Use of recycled plastic in concrete: A review,” Waste Manag., vol. 28, no. 10, pp. 1835–1852, 2008.

T. Ochi, S. Okubo, and K. Fukui, “Development of recycled PET fiber and its application as concrete-reinforcing fiber,” Cem. Concr. Compos., vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 448–455, Jul. 2007.

J. H. J. Kim, C. G. Park, S. W. Lee, S. W. Lee, and J. P. Won, “Effects of the geometry of recycled PET fiber reinforcement on shrinkage cracking of cement-based composites,” Compos. Part B Eng., vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 442–450, Apr. 2008.

F. Pelisser, O. R. K. Montedo, P. J. P. Gleize, and H. R. Roman, “Mechanical properties of recycled PET fibers in concrete,” Mater. Res., vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 679–686, Jul. 2012.

D. A. Silva, A. M. Betioli, P. J. P. Gleize, H. R. Roman, L. A. Gómez, and J. L. D. Ribeiro, “Degradation of recycled PET fibers in Portland cement-based materials,” Cem. Concr. Res., vol. 35, no. 9, pp. 1741–1746, Sep. 2005.

E. Yasar, C. D. Atis, A. Kilic, and H. Gulsen, “Strength properties of lightweight concrete made with basaltic pumice and fly ash,” Mater. Lett., vol. 57, no. 15, pp. 2267–2270, Apr. 2003.

A. Kiliç, C. D. Atiş, E. Yaşar, and F. Özcan, “High-strength lightweight concrete made with scoria aggregate containing mineral admixtures,” Cem. Concr. Res., vol. 33, no. 10, pp. 1595–1599, Oct. 2003.

D. S. Babu, K. Ganesh Babu, and T. H. Wee, “Properties of lightweight expanded polystyrene aggregate concretes containing fly ash,” Cem. Concr. Res., vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 1218–1223, Jun. 2005.

I. B. Topçu and T. Uygunoǧlu, “Properties of autoclaved lightweight aggregate concrete,” Build. Environ., vol. 42, no. 12, pp. 4108–4116, Dec. 2007.

M. Frigione, “Recycling of PET bottles as fine aggregate in concrete,” Waste Manag., vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 1101–1106, Jun. 2010.

S. Akçaözoǧlu, C. D. Atiş, and K. Akçaözoǧlu, “An investigation on the use of shredded waste PET bottles as aggregate in lightweight concrete,” Waste Manag., vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 285–290, Feb. 2010.

ASTM C150, “Standard Specification for Portland Cement,” ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA,, 2019.

ASTM C187, “Standard Test Method for Amount of Water Required for Normal Consistency of Hydraulic Cement Paste,” 2016.

ASTM, “ASTM C136 / C136M - 14 Standard Test Method for Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregates,” ASTM Int. West Conshohocken, pp. 1–5, 2014.

B. Safi, M. Saidi, D. Aboutaleb, and M. Maallem, “The use of plastic waste as fine aggregate in the self-compacting mortars: Effect on physical and mechanical properties,” Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 43, pp. 436–442, 2013.

ASTM C143, “Standard Test Method for Slump of Hydraulic-Cement Concrete,” 2015.

ASTM C642-13, “ASTM C642, Standard Test Method for Density, Absorption, and Voids in Hardened Concrete,” ASTM International, no. 3. pp. 1–3, 2013.

C. C. Test, T. Drilled, C. Ag-, and H. Concrete, “Standard Test Method for Measurement of Rate of Absorption of Water by Hydraulic-,” pp. 1–6, 2014.

American Society for Testing and Materials, ASTM C39/C39M-18, Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens. ASTM International, 2018.

ASTM C78 / C78M, “Standard Test Method for Flexural Strength of Concrete (Using Simple Beam with Third-Point Loading),” 2018.

American Society for Testing and Materials, ASTM C496/C496M-17, Standard Test Method for Splitting Tensile Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens. ASTM International, 2017.

B. Rai, S. T. Rushad, B. Kr, and S. K. Duggal, “Study of Waste Plastic Mix Concrete with Plasticizer,” ISRN Civ. Eng., vol. 2012, pp. 1–5, 2012.

S. Yang, X. Yue, X. Liu, and Y. Tong, “Properties of self-compacting lightweight concrete containing recycled plastic particles,” Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 84, pp. 444–453, Jun. 2015.

A. BHOGAYATA, K. D. SHAH, B. A.VYAS3, and N. K. ARORA4, “Performance of concrete by using Non recyclable plastic wastes as concrete constituent,” Int. J. Eng. Res. Technol., vol. 1, no. 4, p. 3, 2012.

L. A. Pereira De Oliveira and J. P. Castro-Gomes, “Physical and mechanical behaviour of recycled PET fibre reinforced mortar,” Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 1712–1717, Apr. 2011.

L. Ferreira, J. De Brito, and N. Saikia, “Influence of curing conditions on the mechanical performance of concrete containing recycled plastic aggregate,” Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 36, pp. 196–204, Nov. 2012.

R. A. M., “Use of Plastic in A Concrete to Improve Its Properties,” Int. J. Adv. Eng. Res. Stud., vol. 1, no. 1, p. 8, 2012.

Y. Ghernouti, B. Rabehi, T. Bouziani, H. Ghezraoui, and A.Makhloufi, “Fresh and hardened Properties of Self-compacting concrete containing plastic bag waste fibers (WFSCC),” J. Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 82, no. 1, pp. 89–100, 2015.

Copyright (c) 2020 Pakistan Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences

Powered By KICS