Evaluation of Drinking Water Quality in Urban Areas of Pakistan: A Case Study of Southern Lahore

S. Haydar, M. Arshad, J. A. Aziz

Abstract


A study was carried out to evaluate the quality of water supplied by Water and Sanitation Agency (WASA), Lahore. A portion of southern Lahore was selected for this purpose. Water samples from four different sources (tubewells) and eight house connections (two from each tubewell) were collected making a total of twelve sampling points. Two set of samples, one before monsoon and one after the monsoon were taken from each sampling point. Four physicochemical parameters (pH, turbidity, hardness and total dissolved solids) and two bacteriological parameters (total coliform and faecal coliform) were tested for each sample and values compared with World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for drinking water. The results of the study demonstrated that physicochemical and bacteriological quality of water at sources was satisfactory. In the distribution system, physicochemical quality of water was satisfactory while 50 to 62.5% of the samples contained bacteriological contamination before monsoon. This percentage rose to 75% after the monsoon. Possible causes of contamination were leaking water mains and cross connections between water mains and sewers due to close proximity. It is recommended to carry out compulsory chlorination at water sources while maintaining reasonable residuals at the consumers’ end to eliminate the bacteriological contamination.

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