Impact of Canal Water Shortages on Groundwater in the Lower Bari Doab Canal System in Pakistan

Abdul Sattar Shakir, Habib ur Rehman, Noor M Khan, Asad Ullah Qazi

Abstract


This paper presents rigorous analysis of shortage of canal water supplies, crop water requirements, and groundwater use and its quality in the command of Lower Bari Doab Canal, Pakistan. The annual canal water supplies are 36% less than the crop water requirements. This shortage further increases to 56% if actual canal supplies (averaged over last ten years) are compared with the crop water requirement. The groundwater levels are depleting at the rate of 30 to 40 cm per year in most parts of the LBDC command and this tendency of lowering may increase in future due to further increase in crop water requirements. The analysis of data for the last seven years indicate that quality of groundwater in most parts of LBDC command is generally good (64% of the area) or marginally acceptable (28%) for irrigation use. However, declining trends in groundwater quality are visible and can create long term sustainability problems if proper remedial actions are not taken well in time.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Allen RG, Walter IA, Elliott R, Howell T, Itenfisu D, Jensen M. 2005. The ASCE Standardization Reference Evapotranspiration Equation Final Report. Prepared by Task Committee on Standardization of Reference Evapotranspiration of the Environmental and Water Resources Institute, VA, USA.

Directorate of Land Reclamation (DLR) Punjab 2009. Reports on Groundwater Monitoring in Punjab Volume I and II, Lahore, Pakistan.

Gaur, A., T. W. Biggs, M. K. Gumma, G. Parthasaradhi, and and H. Turral. 2008. Water Scarcity Effects on Equitable Water Distribution and Land Use in a Major Irrigation Project— Case Study in India. Journal Of Irrigation And Drainage Engineering © ASCE, 26-35.

Halcrow. 2006. Water balance studies. In: Punjab Irrigated Agriculture Developement Sector Project., Pakistan.

Hellegers, PJGJ., C. J. Perry and Naseer AlAulaqi. 2011. Incentives to reduce groundwater consumption in Yemen. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage 60, 93-102.

Latif, M and M Z Ahmad. 2008. Groundwater and soil salinity variations in a canal command area in Pakistan. Irrigation and Drainage 58: 456-468, Wiley Inter Science (www.interscience.wiley.com) doi: 10.1002/ird.417.

Mul, M.L., J.S. Kemerink N.F. Vyagusa, M.G. Mshana, P. van der Zaag, and H. Makurira 2010. Water allocation practices among small holder farmers in the South Pare Mountains, Tanzania: The issue of scale. Agricultural Water Management, doi:10.1016/j.agwat.2010.02.014. Accessed 24 March 2010.

Qadir, M., Th.M. Boers, S. Schubert, A. Ghafoor, and G. Murtaza 2003. Agricultural water management in water-starved countries: challenges and opportunities. Agricultural Water Management 62 : 165–185.

Shakir, A S, and Qureshi, M M. 2007. Irrigation water management on canal command level: A case studye of Lower Bari Doab Canal System. Proceedings of International Conference on Water and Flood Management . Dhaka: Institute of Water and Flood Management, 215-222.

Shakir, A S, Khan M N and Qureshi, M M. 2010. Canal Water Management: A Case Study of Upper Chenab Canal in Pakistan Journal of Irrigation and Drainage 59 Issue 1: 76-91.

Speelman, Stijn, Jeroen Buysse, Stefano Farolfi, Aymen Frija, Marijke D’Haese, and Luc D’Haese. 2009. Estimating the impacts of water pricing on smallholder irrigators in North West Province, South Africa. Agricultural Water Management 96: 1560–1566.

Water Apportionment Accord (WAA) 1991. Apportionment of Waters of Indus between provinces, Karachi, Pakistan.

WWF, 2006. 4th World Water Forum, Final Report, Local actions for a global challenge, Conclusion No.3 of Ministerial Round Table, at Mexico 2006 Mexico, 2006.






Copyright (c) 2016 Abdul Sattar Shakir

Powered By KICS