Performance Prediction of Hot Mix Asphalt from Asphalt Binders


  • Imran Hafeez
  • Mumtaz Ahmed Kamal
  • Muhammad Reza Ahadi
  • Qamar Shahzad
  • Nadia Bashir


Asphalt binder being a high weight hydrocarbon contains asphaltene and maltene and is widely used as cementing materials in the construction of flexible pavements. Its performance in hot mix asphalt also depends on combining with different proportions of aggregates. The main objective of this study was to characterize asphalt cement rheological behavior and to investigate the influence of asphalt on asphalt-aggregate mixtures prepared with virgin binders and using polymers. Binder rheology and mixtures stiffness were determined under a range of cyclic loadings and temperature conditions. Master curves were developed for the evaluation of relationship between parameters like complex modulus and phase angle at different frequencies. Horizontal shift factors were also computed to determine time and temperature response of binders and mixes. The results showed that the stiffness of both the binder and the mixes depends on temperature and frequency of load. Polymer modified binder is least susceptible to temperature variations as compared to other virgin asphalt cement. Performance of asphalt mixtures can be predicted from those of asphalt binders using the master curve technique.


R. Löhner; Applied Computational Fluid Dynamics Techniques: An Introduction Based on Finite Element Methods, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, (2008).

J.S. Hesthaven, and T. Warburton; Nodal Discontinuous Galerkin Method: Algorithms, Analysis, and Applications, Springer Texts in Applied Mathematics 54, Springer-Verlag, New York, (2008).

B. Cockburn, G.E. Karniadakis, and C.W. Shu (Eds.); Discontinuous Galerkin Methods: Theory, Computation, and Applications, Lecture Notes in Computational Science and Engineering, vol. 11. Springer-Verlag, New York, (2000).

F. Bassi, and S. Rebay; A high-order accurate discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for the numerical solution of the compressible Navier–Stokes equations, Journal of Computational Physics, 131 (1997) 267–279.

B. Cockburn, and C.W. Shu; The local discontinuous Galerkin method for timedependent convection–diffusion systems, SIAM Journal on Numerical Analysis, 35

(1998) 2440–2463. [6] C.E. Baumann, and J.T. Oden, A discontinuous hp finite element method for the Euler and the Navier-Stokes equations, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, 31 (1) (1999) 79–95.

D.N. Arnold, F. Brezzi, B. Cockburn, and D. Marini, Unified Analysis of discontinuous Galerkin methods for elliptic problems, SIAM Journal on Numerical Analysis, 39 (5) (2002) 1749–1779.

F. Bassi, A. Crivellini, S. Rebay, and M. Savini; Discontinuous Galerkin solution of the Reynolds-averaged Navie-Stokes and k- turbulence model equations, Computers and Fluids, 34 (2005) 507–540.

B.V. Leer, and S. Nomura; Discontinuous Galerkin for diffusion, 17th AIAA Computational Fluid Dynamics Conference, AIAA-2005-5108 (2005).

M. Dumbser, D.S. Balsara, E.F. Toro, and C.D. Munz; A unified framework for the construction of one-step finite volume and discontinuous Galerkin schemes on unstructured meshes, Journal of Computational Physics, 227 (18) (2008) 8209–8253.

J. Peraire, and P.O. Persson; The compact discontinuous Galerkin (CDG) method for elliptic problems, SIAM Journal on Scientific Computing, 30 (4) (2008) 1806–1824.

H. Luo, J.D. Baum, and R. Löhner; A discontinuous Galerkin method based on a Taylor basis for compressible flows on arbitrary grids, Journal of Computational Physics, 227 (20) (2008) 8875–8893.

Amjad Ali, Hong Luo, Khalid S. Syed, and Muhammad Ishaq; A Parallel Discontinuous Galerkin Code for Compressible Fluid Flows on Unstructured Grids, Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 29 (1), in press.

Hong Luo, Luqing Luo, Amjad Ali, Robert Nourgaliev, and Chunpei Cai; A Parallel, Reconstructed Discontinuous Galerkin Method for the Compressible Flows on Arbitrary Grids, Communications in Computational Physics, 9(2) (2011), 363–389.

I. Ahmad, and M. Berzins; MOL solvers for hyperbolic PDEs with source terms, Mathematics and Computer in Simulation. 56(2) (2001) 115–125.

M.C. Coimbra, C. Sereno, and A. Rodrigues; Moving finite element method: applications to science and engineering problems, Computer and Chemical Engineering, 28 (2004) 597–603.

J. Lang, and A. Walter; A finite element method adaptive in space and time for nonlinear reaction-diffusion-systems, IMPACT of Computing in Science and Engineering, 4 (1992) 269–314.

J.I. Ramos; Finite element methods for onedimensional flame propagation problems, in: T.J. Chung (Eds.), Numerical Modeling in Combustion, Taylor and Francis, Washington, DC, (1993) 3–131.

J.G. Verwer, J.G. Blom, and J.M. Sanz-Serna; An adaptive moving grid method for onedimensional systems of partial differential equations, Journal of Computational Physics, 82 (2) (1989) 454–486.

A.V. Wouwer, P. Saucez, W.E. Schiesser, and S. Thompson; A MATLAB implementation of upwind finite differences and adaptive grids in the method of lines, Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics, 183 (2005) 245–258.

MPICH project. (last accessed Jan. 10, 2010).

Beowulf Project. (last accessed Mar. 5, 2009).

M.H. Carpenter, and C. Kennedy; Fourth-order 2N-storage Runge-Kutta schemes, Technical Report NASA TM-109112, NASA Langley Research Center (1994).

H.L. Atkins, and C.W. Shu; Quadrature free implementation of the discontinuous Galerkin method for hyperbolic equations, AIAA Journal, 36(5) (1998) 775–782.

TOP500 project. (last accessed Jun. 10, 2010)

A. Klockner, T. Warburton, J. Bridge, and J.S. Hesthaven; Nodal discontinuous Galerkin methods on graphics processors, Journal of Computational Physics, 228 (21) (2009) 7863– 7882.

A. Baggag, H. Atkins, and D. Keyes; Parallel implementation of the discontinuous Galerkin method, NASA/CR-1999-209546, ICASE Technical Report No. 99–35 (1999).

Grama, A. Gupta, G. Karypis, and V. Kumar; Introduction to Parallel Computing, Second ed., Pearson Education, Singapore, (2003).

N. Peters, and J. Warnatz (Eds.); Numerical methods in laminar flame propagation, Notes on Numerical Fluid Dynamics, vol. 6, Vieweg, Braunschweig, (1982).

H.A. Dwyer, R.J. Kee, and B.R. Sanders; Adaptive grid method for problems in fluid mechanics and heat transfer, AIAA Journal, 18 (10) (1980) 1205–1212.

C. Sereno, A.E. Rodrigues, and J. Villadsen; The moving finite element method with polynomial approximations of any degree, Computer and Chemical Engineering, 15 (1) (1991) 25–33.

C. Sereno, A.E. Rodrigues, and J. Villadsen; Solutions of partial differential equations systems by the moving finite element method, Computer and Chemical Engineering, 16 (6) (1992) 583–592.






Civil Engineering,Structures, Construction, Geo technology, Water, Transportation