Synergistic Effect of Aluminum Hydroxide and Antimony Trioxide on the Flammability of Phosphorous Modified Epoxy Resin

Muhammad Asim Iqbal, Muhammad Ahsan Iqbal, Atif Javaid

Abstract


In this study, aluminum hydroxide (ATH) and antimony trioxide based phosphorous modified epoxy resin (Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether) is synthesized and subsequently cured with tri-ethylene tetraamine (TETA) at room temperature to enhance the flame retardancy of phosphorous based epoxy resins. The structure of the modified flame retardant epoxy resin (FREP) is characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UL-94 and by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), moreover, mechanical properties are analyzed to study the effect of such additives addition on epoxy resin. Introduction of both antimony and aluminum hydroxide together in phosphorous modified epoxy resin brings the success to enhance the flame retardant properties of the epoxy resin. The addition of 40 weight % of aluminum hydroxide and antimony trioxide mixture in phosphorus-modified epoxy resin demonstrated optimal composition among all selected compositions i.e. 10 %, 20%, 30%, 40% and has shown eminent flammability along with balance mechanical strength. The obtained findings confirm the functionality of demonstrated modified resin as an effective flame retardant material.

Keywords: Fire retardant, epoxy Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A, Aluminium hydroxide, Antimoney trioxide, 


Full Text:

PDF

References


Chen L, W.Y., A review on flame retardant technology in China. Part I: development of flame retardants polym Adv Technol., 2010. 21: p. 1-26.

Weil ED, L.S., A review of current flame retardant systems for epoxy resins. J Fire Sci. , 2004. 22: p. 25-40.

Li, Y.X., Zongwen Mao, Liang Wang, Yong Guan, Anna Zheng, Influence of antimony oxide on flammability of polypropylene/intumescent flame retardant system. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 2012 97: p. 1737-1744.

Rachasit Jeencham, N.S., Kasama Jarukumjorn, Effect of flame retardants on flame retardant, mechanical, and thermal properties of sisal fiber/polypropylene composites. Composites: Part B, 2014 56: p. 249-253.

Banks, Mavis, John R. Ebdon, and Michael Johnson. "The flame-retardant effect of diethyl vinyl phosphonate in copolymers with styrene, methyl methacrylate, acrylonitrile and acrylamide." Polymer 35.16 (1994): 3470-3473

Liang, J.Z., et al., Flame-Retardant and Flexural Properties of Polypropylene/Intumescent Composites. Advances in Polymer Technology, 2015. 34(3): p. n/a-n/a.

D.C.O. Marney, L.J.R., T.M. Stark, The influence of an N-alkoxy HALS on the decomposition of a brominated fire retardant in polypropylene. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 2008 93: p. 714-722.

Chen, L. and Y.-Z. Wang, A review on flame retardant technology in China. Part I: development of flame retardants. Polymers for Advanced Technologies, 2010. 21(1): p. 1-26.

Fouad Laoutid, M.L., Didier Lesueur, Leila Bonnaud, Philippe Dubois, Calcium-based hydrated minerals: Promising halogen-free flame retardant and fire resistant additives for polyethylene and ethylene vinyl acetate copolymers. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 2013 98: p. 1617-1625.

Kannan, P., and K. Kishore. "Synthesis and spectral studies of polyamide-phosphate esters from phosphine-oxide-containing diols with aryl phosphorodichloridates and their thermal and flammability behaviour." Polymer 32.10 (1991): 1909-1913.

Ubirajara Almeida Pinto, L.L.Y.V., Jorge Gallo, Regina Celia Reis Nunes, Flame retardancy in thermoplastic polyurethane elastomers (TPU) with mica and aluminum trihydrate (ATH). Polymer Degradation and Stability, 2000. 69: p. 257-260.

Hamdani-Devarennes, S., et al., Calcium and aluminum-based fillers as flame-retardant additives in silicone matrices. III. Investigations on fire reaction. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 2013. 98(10): p. 2021-2032.

Dyakonov, T., et al., Thermal analysis of some aromatic amine cured model epoxy resin systems—II: residues of degradation. Polymer degradation and stability, 1996. 54(1): p. 67-83.

La Rosa, A. D., et al. "An oxygen index evaluation of flammability on modified epoxy/polyester systems." Polymer40.14 (1999): 4093-4098.

Jiao, C., et al., Flame retardant epoxy resin based on bisphenol A epoxy resin modified by phosphoric acid. Journal of thermal analysis and calorimetry, 2013. 114(1): p. 253-259.

ASTM International. Standard Test Method for Compressive Properties of Rigid Plastics. ASTM International, ASTM D-695,2010.

ASTM International Standard Test Method for Thermal Stability by Thermogravimetry, ASTM International E2550-17

ASTM International Standard Test Method for Measuring the Comparative Burning Characteristics of Solid Plastics in a Vertical Position, ASTM International D3801,14

Liang, J.Z., Tensile properties of polypropylene flame-retardant composites. Polym. Bull., 2012. 68: p. 803–813.

Chen, X. and C. Jiao, Thermal degradation characteristics of a novel flame retardant coating using TG-IR technique. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 2008. 93(12): p. 2222-2225.






Copyright (c) 2019 Pakistan Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences

Powered By KICS