A Review of Dissolved Oxygen and Biochemical Oxygen Demand Models for Large Rivers

Husnain Haider, Waris Al, Sajjad Haydar


Development and modifications of mathematical models for Dissolved Oxygen (DO) are reviewed in this paper. The field and laboratory methods to estimate the kinetics of Carbonaceous Biochemical Oxygen Demand (CBOD) and Nitrogenous Biochemical Oxygen Demand (NBOD) are also presented. This review also includes recent approaches of BOD and DO modeling beside the conventional ones alongwith their applicability to the natural rivers. The most frequently available public domain computer models and their applications in real life projects are also briefly covered. The literature survey reveals that currently there is more emphasis on solution techniques rather than understanding the mechanisms and processes that control DO in large rivers. The DO modeling software contains inbuilt coefficients and parameters that may not reflect the specific conditions under study. It is therefore important that the selected mathematical and computer models must incorporate the relevant processes specific to the river under study and be within the available resources in term of data collection.

Full Text:



Thomann V. R and Mueller A.J, 1887, Principals of Surface Water Quality Modeling, Harper International Edition, Harper & Row, New York

Haider H., 2010. Water Quality Management Model for Ravi River, PhD Thesis, Institute of Environmental Engineering and Research, UET, Lahore.

Somlyody L. and van Straten G., 1986, Modeling and Managing Shallow lake eutrophication, with application on lake Balaton, Springer Verlag, Berlin, 386.

Fischer H. B., List E.J., Koh R.C.Y., Imberger J. and Brooks N.H., 1979, Mixing inland and coastal waters, Academic Press, New York.

Rauch W., Henze M., Koncsos L., Reichert P., Shanahan P., Somlyody L., Vanrolleghem P., 1998, River water quality modeling: 1. State of the art, Presented at IAWQ Biennial International Conference, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 21 – 26 June 1998.

Thomann, V.R, 1972, System Analysis and Water Quality Management, McGraw-Hill Book Company, USA.

Schnoor J.L., 1996, Environmental Modeling – Fate and Transport of Pollutants in Water, Air and Soil, Environmental Science and Technology, Wiley Inter0Science Series, USA.

Streeter H.W., Phelps E.B., 1925, A study of the pollution and natural purification of the Ohio River. III Factors concerned in the phenomena of oxidation and reaeration. US Public Health Serv Public Health Bull; 146:75.

Quinn N.W.T. & Jacobs K., 2005, Elements of Decision support system for real-time management of dissolved oxygen in the San Joaquin River deep water ship channel, Environmental Modeling Software, 20 1495 – 1504.

Jha R., Ojha C.S.P and Bhatia K.K.K, 2005, Water quality and flow simulation in River Kali, India, IE(I) Journal – EN, 85, 54 – 61

Haider H. and Ali W. (2010). Development of Dissolved Oxygen Model for a Highly Variable Flow River: A Case Study of Ravi River in Pakistan, Environmental Modeling and Assessment, 15 (6) 583-599.

Song Q. and Brown L.C., 1990, DO model uncertainty with correlated inputs, Journal of Environmental Engineering, ASCE, 116(6) 1164 – 1180.

Canale R.P., Owens E.M., Auer M.T., and Effler S.W., 1995, Validation of water quality model for Seneca River, journal of Environmental Engineering, 121, 3, 241-250.

Jha R., Ojha C.S.P and Bhatia K.K.K, 2007, Development of Refined BOD and DO models for highly polluted Kali River in India, Journal of Environmental Engineering, 133(8) 839-852

Camp, 1963, First expanded BOD-DO model, Basic river water quality models, IHP-V Project 8.1, D G Jolankai, ed, 1997, pp 27 – 29.

Chapra S.C., 1997, Surface water quality modeling, McGraw Hill International, Civil Engineering Series, Singapore.

Ramcharan, C. W., Padilla, D. K., and Dodson, S. I. (1992). ‗‗A multivariate model for predicting population fluctuations of Dreissena polymorpha in North American lakes.‘‘ Canadian J. Fisheries and Aquatic Sci., 49(1), 150–158.

Effler S.W., and Siegfried C.A., 1994, Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) populations in the Seneca River, New York: Impact on oxygen resources, Envir. Sci and Technol., 28(12), 2216-2221.

Gelda R.K., Effler S.W., and Owens E.M., 2001, River dissolves oxygen model with zebra mussel oxygen demand (ZOD), Journal of Environmental Engineering, ASCE, 127(9), 790-801.

Cole T.M., and Buchak E.M., 1995, CEQUAL-W2: A two dimensional, laterally averages, hydrodynamic and water quality model, Version 2.0, US Army Crops of Engineers, Vickburg, Miss, USA.

Effler S.W., et al., 1996, Impact of zebra mussel invasion on river water quality, Water Envir. Res., 68(2), 205-214.

Gundelach J.M. and Castillo J.E., 1976, Natural stream purification under anaerobic conditions, J. Water Poll. Contr. Fed, 48(7), 1753-1758.

Bhargava D.D, 1983, Most rapid BOD assimilation in Ganga and Yamuna rivers, Journal of Environmental Engineering, ASCE, 109, 174 – 187.

Jolanki G., 1997, Basic river water quality models, IHP-V, Technical documents in hydrology No. 13, UNESCO, Paris.

Maldeniv N., Strzepek K. & Serumola O.M., 2005, Water Quality Assessment and Modeling of an Effluent Dominating Stream, the Notwane River, Botswana, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 109, 97-121

Waugh A.E., 1943, Elements of statistical method, 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York.

Thomas, H. A., 1950, Graphical Determination of BOD Curves Constants, Water and Sewerage Works, Vol 97.

Metcalf & Eddy. Wastewater Engineering: Treatment, Disposal, Reuse. 1979. Second Edition, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.

Cox B.A., 2003, A review of dissolved oxygen modeling techniques for lowland rivers, The Science of the Total Environment, Science Direct, ELSEVIER, 303-334.

Borsuk M.B. and Stwo C.A., 2000, Bayesian parameter estimation in a mixed – order model of BOD decay, Water Research, 34(6) 1830 – 1836.

Adrian D.D., Sanders T.G. and Roider E.M., 1999, Oxygen sag equation for second order BOD decay, Water Research, 32(2) 840-848.

Hewitt J., Hunter J.V. and Lockwood D., 1979, A multiorder approach to BOD kinetics, Water Research 13 325-329.

Lung, W. S., 1998, Trends in BOD/ DO modeling for waste load allocations, Journal of Environmental Engineering, ASCE, 124 (10) 1004 – 1007.

Velz., C.J., & Gannon J.J., 1962, Biological Extraction and accumulation in stream selfpurification. Kousis 90 1st International Conference of Water Pollution Research.

Tyagi B., Gskkhar S. & Bhargava D.D., 1999. Mathematical modeling of stream DO-BOD accounting for settleable BOD and periodically varying BOD source, Environmental Modeling and Software, 14, 461-471.

Bhargava D.S., 1986a, DO sag model for extremely fast river purification, Journal of Environmental Engineering, ASCE, 112, 572 – 585.

Bhargava D.S., 1986b, Models for polluted streams subject to fast purification, Water Research 20, 1-8.

Bhargava D.S., 2008, Dissolved oxygen sag analysis for a settling fields overlapping multiwastewater-outfalls, Springer Science + Business Media, Environmentalist, 28: 128 – 136.

Stanier R.Y., Adelbery E.A., and Ingraham J.L., 1976, The microbial world, 4th Edition, Prentice Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 276-278.

Haider H., and Ali W., 2010a, Effect of wastewater treatment on biokinetics of dissolved oxygen in River Ravi, Pakistan Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Directorate of Research, UET, Lahore – Pakistan, 6, 42 – 51.

Hydroscience Inc, 1971, ―Simplified Mathematical Modeling of Water Quality Prepared for the Mitre Corporation and the USEPA, Water Programs, Washington D C, Mar 1971, 127 pp, 4 Appendixes. 5 Monographs.

Wright R.M. & McDonnell A.J., 1979, Instream deoxygenation rated prediction, Journal of the Environmental Engineering Division, ASCE, 105, 323 – 335.

Haffely G. and Jhonson L., 1994, Biodegradation of TCMP (N-Serve) nitrification inhibitor in the ultimate BOD test, Proc, WEFTEC 1994, 64 th Ann Conf., Chicago III.

Ha S. & Bae M., 2001, Effect of land use and municipal wastewater treatment changes on stream water quality, water, air and soil pollution, 70, 135-151.

Radwan M., Willems P., El-Sadek A., and Berlamont J, 2003, Modeling of dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand in river water using detailed and a simplified model, Inter. J. River Basin Management, 1(2) 97-103.

Murty Y.S.R, Bhallamudi M. and Srinivasan K., 2006, Non-uniform Flow Effect on Optimal Waste Load Allocation in Rivers, Water Resource Management, Springer, 20, 509-530.

Singh A.P., Ghosh S.K. & Sharma P., 2007, Water Quality management of a stretch of river Yamuna: An Interactive Fuzzy Multi-objective Approach, Water Resource Management, Springer, 21, 515-532.

Campolo M. Andreussi P., and Soldati A., 2002, Water quality control in the river Arno, Technical Note, Elsevier, Water Research, 36, 2673 – 2680

Zison S.W., Mills W.B., Diemer D., and Chen C.W., 1978, Rates, constants and kinetic formulations in surface water quality modeling, Tetra Tech, Inc for USEPA, ORD, Athens GA, ERL, EPA 600-3-78-105, 317pp.

Kannel P.R., Kanel S., Lee S., Lee Y.S., and Gan T.Y., 2010, A Review of Public Domain Water Quality Models for Simulating Dissolved Oxygen in Rivers and Streams, Environmental Modeling and Assessment, DOI 10.1007/s10666-010-9235-1.

Cox B.A., 2003a, A review of currently available in-stream water-quality models and their applicability for simulating dissolved oxygen in lowland rivers, Science of the Total Environment, DOI:10.1016/S0048- 9697(03)00063-9

Brown L. and Branwell T.O., 1987, The enhanced stream water quality models QUAL2E and QUAL2E-UNCAS: Documentation and User Manual, Report EPA/600/3-87/007, USEPA, Athens, GA.

Bowie G.L., Pagenhopf J.R. Rupp G.L, Johnson K.M., Chan W.H., Gherini S.A., Mills W.B., Procella D.B., Campbell C.L., 1985, Rates, constants, and kinetics formulation in surface water quality modeling, 2nd Editions, EPA/600/3-85/040, USEPA, Athens, GA.

Drolc A. and Koncan J.Z., 1996, Water quality modeling of the River Sava Slovenia, Water Research, 30(11) 2587 – 2592.

Gromiec M.J., 1997, River water quality modeling in Poland In: River Quality. Dynamics and Restoration. A. Laenen and D.A Dunnette (eds). Lewis Publishers, NY.

Ghosh N.C. and McBean E.A., 1998, Water quality modeling of the Kali River, India, Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 102, 105-115.

Chaudhury R.R., Sobrinho A.H., Wright R.M., and Sreenivas M., 1998, Dissolved oxygen modeling of the Blackstone River (Northeastern United States), Water Research, 32(8) 2400 – 2412.

Yang M.D. and Sykes R.M., 1998, Trophic - dynamic modeling in a sallow eutrophic river ecosystem, Ecological Modeling, 105, 129 – 139.

Ning S.K., Chnag Ni-Bin, Yong L., Chen H.W. and Hsu H.Y., 2000, Assessing pollution prevention program by QUAL2E simulation analysis for the Kao-Ping River Basin, Taiwan, Journal of Environmental Management, 60 , 1- 17.

McIntyre N.R., Wagener T., Wheater H.S., and Chapra S.C., 2003, Risk-based modeling of surface water quality: a case study of Charles River, Massachusetts, Journal of Hydrology, Science Direct, 274, 225 – 247.

Park S.S., Na Y. and Uchrin C.G., 2003, An oxygen equivalent model for water quality dynamics in macrophyte dominated river, Ecological modeling, 168, 1-12.

Paliwal R., Sharma P., and Kansual A., 2007, Water quality modeling of the river Yamina (India) using QUAL2E-UNCAS, Journal of Environmental Management, 83 131-144.

Yang, C.C., Chen C. S., & Lee C.S., 2011, Comprehensive river water quality management by simulation and optimization models, Environmental Modeling and Assessment, 16: 283-294.

Chapra, S.C. and Pelletier, G.J. 2003, QUAL2K: A Modeling Framework for Simulating River and Stream Water Quality: Documentation and Users Manual. Civil and Environmental Engineering Dept., Tufts University, Medford, MA., [email protected]

Pelletier, G. J., & Chapra, S. C., 2005, QUAL2Kw theory and documentation (version 5.1), a modeling framework for simulating river and stream water quality. Washington: Department of ecology.

Park S.S. and Lee Y.S., 2002, A water quality modeling study of the Nakdong River, Korea, Ecological Modeling, Elsevier, 152, 65 – 75.

Wool T.M. et al., 2001, Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP) version 6 User‘s Manual, US Environmental Protection Agency, Atlanta, GA.

Warn, A. E., 1987, SIMCAT—a catchment simulation model for planning investment for river quality (pp. 211–218). Oxford: IAWPRC, Pergamon.

Bowden, K., & Brown, S. R., 1984. Relating effluent control parameters to river quality objectives using a generalized catchment simulation model. Water Science and Technology, 16 (5–7), 197–206.

Whitehead p.G., Williams R.J. and Lewis D.R., 1997, Quality simulation along river systems (QUASAR): model theory and development, The Science of the Total Environment, 194/195, 447-456.

Copyright (c) 2016 Husnain Haider, Waris Al, Sajjad Haydar

Powered By KICS