Improving the Environmental Performance of Bus-based Public Transport System in Lahore-Pakistan
AbstractThe bus-based public transport system in developing countries poses serious environmental challenges. This paper explores the environmental performance of buses managed and operated by private companies in Lahore under franchise initiative of Government of Punjab. The empirical evidence shows that buses pollute the air with CO and NOx emissions. The bus-based air pollution is result of obsolete engine technology, poor maintenance regime, excessive passenger load, and inadequate training of bus drivers. The problem of air pollution increases due to lack of regulatory measures on operators to maintain vehicles in good condition. The paper suggests that effective inspection and maintenance regime, careful selection of new engine technologies, mixed fuel strategy and segregated bus ways can help achieving the reduction in total vehicle emissions.
Rabaiotti, C., Carpez, M., Puzrin, A. and Yang, F. L.; Correlation between the values of compaction AASHTO- Standard and AASHTOModified; Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, (2010).
Connelly, J., Jensen, W. and Harmon, P.; Proctor Compaction Testing; University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA (2008).
Scott, B., Jaksa, M. and Kuo, Y. L; Use of Proctor Compaction Testing for Deep Fill Construction using Impact Rollers, Proc. Int. Conf on Ground Improvement and Ground Control, Wollongong, Australia, (2012) 1107- 1112.
McCook, D. K; Correlation between simple field test and relative density test values; Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, (1996) 860-862
http:// pecongress.org.pk paper no 502 site visited on 26-6-2013
www.keystonewalls.com site accessed on 20-5- 2013
Bloomfield, E. M. and Ware, C. I; Fines content for optimum stability with coastal dune sands within Northern Kwazulu-Natal, Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, South Africa (2004) 303-308.
Kim, D., Sagong, M., and Lee, Y; Effect of fine aggregate content on the mechanical properties of compacted decomposed granitic soils; Construction and Building Materials, (2004) 189-196.
Deb, K., Sawant, V. A. and Kiran, A. S; Effect of fines on compaction Characteristics of poorly graded sands; International Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, (2010) 299-304.
Khan, A. H., Akbar, A., Farooq, K., Khan, N. M., Aziz, M. and Mujtaba, H: Soil Classification through Penetration Tests, Pakistan Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 9 (2011) 76-86.