A Study of Drinking Water of Industrial Area of Sheikhupura with Special Concern to Arsenic, Manganese and Chromium

Syeda Rubina Gilani, Mushraf Hussain, Yawar Baig, Zaid Mahmood, Zaigham Abbas, Samana Batool

Abstract


In our current study we focused our attention to analyze the drinking water of industrial area of Sheikhupura that is swarming with small and large industries. Previously no work has been reported related to this area. Samples were collected from the twelve different sites of the mentioned area for six months at frequency of once per fifteen days (map in Fig 1). The samples were analyzed under strict quality control conditions and ASTM (American Standard Testing Methods) methods were employed for strictly precise and accurate results. Four sites showed bacterial contamination, five sites indicated high level of TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) and conductivity. Only one site indicated elevated chromium leve(0.6 mg/L)l, two depicted increased level of arsenic but five sites gave idea about the high level of manganese(highest average value 1.2 mg/L ) in the study area.

Full Text:

PDF

References


WHO (2001), Water health and human rights, World Water Day. Available online at http://www.worldwaterday.org/thematic/hmnrig hts.html#n4

Sardar Khan a,b,*, Maria Shahnaz a, Noor Jehan a, Shafiqur Rehman a, M. Tahir Shah c, Islamud Din, (2012) Drinking water quality and human health risk in Charsadda district, Pakistan, Journal of Cleaner Production (xxx) 1 – 9

Muhammad, S., Shah, M.T., Khan, S., (2011). Health risk assessment of heavy metals and their source apportionment in drinking water of Kohistan region, northern Pakistan. Microchem. J. 98, 334 - 343.

Domènech, L., Saurí, D., (2011). A comparative appraisal of the use of rainwater harvesting in single and multifamily buildings of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona (Spain): social experience, drinking water savings and economic costs. J. Clean. Prod. 19, 598 - 608.

Lambooy, T., (2011). Corporate social responsibility: sustainable water use. J. Clean. Prod. 9, 852 - 866.

Kemp, D., Bond, C.J., Franks, D.M., Cote, C., (2010). Mining, water and human rights making the connection. J. Clean. Prod. 18, 1553 - 1562.

Chilton PJ et al, (2001). Pakistan water quality mapping and management project. Scooping study-draft final report. Loughborough, UK, Water Engineering development Centre, Loughborough University & London school of Hygiene and Tropical Medicines.

Abid, M.A. and Jamil, (2005). A., The Assessment of Drinking Water Quality and availability in NWFP, NWFP, RWSSP, Peshawar.

CDC, (2005) Third national report on human exposure to environmental chemicals. Washington, DC: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Yüzbaşı, E. Sezgin, Z. Yıldırım and M. Yıldırım, (2009) Changes in Pb, Cd, Fe, Cu and Zn levels during the production of kaşar cheese, J. Food Qual. 32, 73.

Azizullah A, et al, (2010), Water pollution in Pakistan and its impact on public health— A review, Environ Int.

WHO, (2003) Arsenic in drinking-water. Background document for preparation of WHO Guidelines for drinking-water quality, Geneva, World Health Organization (WHO/SDE/WSH/03.04/75).

WHO, (2008), Guide line for drinking-water quality, 3rd edition, Vol 1, recommendations, Geneva.

Hammer, M.J. Hammer, (1986), Water and wastewater technology, John Wiley Inc., New York, USA.

A. Ilyas and T. Sarwar, (2003), Study of trace elements in drinking water in the vicinity of Palosi drain, Peshawar, Pak J Biol Sci 6, 86.

R.A. Sial, M.F. Chaudhary, S.T. Abbas, M.I. Latif and A.G. Khan, (2006), Quality of effluents from Hattar Industrial Estate, J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 7 , 974.

WWF, (2007), Pakistan's waters at risk, Water and health related issues in Pakistan and key recommendations, A special report, WWF — Pakistan, Ferozepur Road, Lahore-54600, Pakistan, 1-33.

S. Haydar1, M. Arshad2 and J.A. Aziz (2009), Pak. J. Engg. & Appl. Sci. Vol. 5, July p. 16- 23

Sun-OK HER, Shin-Ho CHUNG, Nasir J.A. and Noor-Us-Saba. (2001), Drinking Water Quality Monitoring in Islamabad, National Institute of Health & Korea International Cooperation Agency, Islamabad.

PAK-EPA, (2010), Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency, National Standards for Drinking Water Quality, November

WHO (1995), Guide lines for drinking water quality Geneva. 2nd ed., 1, 114.

WHO (1996), .Guidelines for drinking-water quality, Health criteria and other supporting information. World Health Organization, Geneva, 2nd ed. Vol. 2.

Mertz W. (1993), Chromium in human nutrition: a review. J Nutr. 123, 626-33.

R. Ullah, R.N. Malik and A. Qadir, (2009), Assessment of groundwater contamination in an industrial city, Sialkot, Pakistan, Afr J Environ Sci Technol 3, 429–446.

M.S. Saif, Midrar-Ul-Haq and K.S. Memon, (2005), Heavy metals contamination through industrial effluent to irrigation water and soil in Korangi area of Karachi (Pakistan), Int J Agri Biol 7, 646.

S.R. Tariq, M.H. Shah, N. Shaheen, M. Jaffar and A. Khalique, (2008), Statistical source identification of metals in groundwater exposed to industrial contamination, Environ Monit Assess 138, 159.

R.T. Nickson, J.M. McArthur, B. Shrestha, T.O. Kyaw-Myint and D. Lowry, (2005), Arsenic and other drinking water quality issues, Muzaffargarh District, Pakistan, Appl Geochem 20, 55.

A. Rahman, H.K. Lee and M.A. Khan, (1997), Domestic water contamination in rapidly growing mega cities of Asia: case of Karachi, Pakistan, Environ Monit Assess 44, 339.

S. Mahmood and A. Maqbool, (2006), Impacts of wastewater irrigation on water quality and on the health of local community in Faisalabad, Pak J Water Res 10, 19.

M. Ashraf, J. Tariq and M. Jaffar, (1991), Contents of trace metals in fish, sediment and water from three freshwater reservoirs on the Indus River, Pakistan, Fish Res 12, 355.

A. Farooqi, H. Masuda and N. Firdous, (2007), Toxic fluoride and arsenic contaminated groundwater in the Lahore and Kasur districts, Punjab, Pakistan and possible contaminant sources, Environ Pollut 145, 839.

Kondakis XG, Makris N, Leotsinidis M, Prinou M, Papapetropoulos T., (1989), Possible health effects of high manganese concentration in drinking water. Arch Environ Health 44, 175.

Bouchard M, Laforest F, Vandelac L, Bellinger D, Mergler D, (2007), Hair manganese and hyperactive behaviors: pilot study of schoolage children exposed through tap water. Environ Health Perspect 115, 122.

He P, Liu DH, Zhang GQ., (1994), Effects of high-level-manganese sewage irrigation on children’s neurobehavior. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 28, 216.

Nasrullah, R. Naz, H. Bibi, M. Iqbal and M.I. Durrani, (2006), Pollution load in industrial effluent and ground water of Gadoon Amazai Induatrial Estate (GAIE) Swabi, NWFP, J Agri Biol Sci 1, 18.

Groschen GE, Arnold TL, Morrow WS, Warner KL. (2009). Occurrence and Distribution of Iron, Manganese, and Selected Trace Elements in Ground Water in the Glacial Aquifer System of the Northern United States. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 5006.

Midrar-Ul-Haq, R.A. Khattak, H.K. Puno, M.S. Saif and K.S. Memon, (2005), Surface and ground water contamination in NWFP and Sindh provinces with respect to trace elements, Int J Agri Biol 7, 214.

M.I. Lone, S. Saleem, T. Mahmood, K. Saifullah and G. Hussain, (2003), Heavy metal contents of vegetables irrigated by sewage/tube-well water, Int J Agri Biol 5, 533.

S.R. Tariq, M.H. Shah, N. Shaheen, M. Jaffar and A. Khalique, (2008), Statistical source identification of metals in groundwater exposed to industrial contamination, Environ Monit Assess 138, 15.

S. Haydar, M. Arshad and J.A. Aziz (2009) Evaluation of Drinking Water Quality in Urban Areas of Pakistan: A Case Study of Southern Lahore Pak. J. Engg. & Appl. Sci. Vol. 5, July (p. 16-23).






Copyright (c) 2016 Syeda Rubina Gilani

Powered By KICS