The Use of GIS and Geo-Electric Techniques for Modeling of Surface and Groundwater in Kotli City, District Kotli, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan

Abrar Niaz, Mubashar Imtiaz, Muhammad Rustam Khan, Fahad Hameed, Jawad Niaz, Ali Yousaf Khan, Kishwar Mehmood


The Geographic Information System (GIS) and geo-electrical techniques have been used for the modeling of surface and groundwater bodies of the Kotli city and its surrounding areas of District Kotli, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. The Landsat 8 imagery is used for the modeling of the surface water and Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) method is applied for the delineation of subsurface lithology in the study area. A total number of 21 VES points have been collected by using Schlumberger configuration. The VES data were acquired with the help of ABEM Terrameter SAS 4000. The acquired data have been processed by using IPI2WIN (2008) software and the interpretation was carried out in terms of true resistivity and thickness of different layers of sedimentary strata. The underline lithology comprises of top soil, boulder clay, boulder and gravel, clay, dry sandy soil and sandstone. The groundwater potential zones (good and moderate) have been identified in the area. The thickness of aquifer varies from 20 m to 129 m. The maximum number of aquifers are confined and of “A” (ρ1 < ρ2 < ρ3), “K” (ρ1 < ρ2 > ρ3) and “H” type (ρ1 > ρ2 < ρ3) shapes. The overburden protective capacity of the aquifers are rated as poor to weak in the vicinity of VES 1, 4, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 20 and 21 and vulnerable to infiltration of leachate from storage facility or dumps.  

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