Prediction of an Optimum Biodiesel-Diesel Blended Fuel for Compression Ignition Engine Using GT-Power

Asad Naeem Shah, Fiaz H. Shah, Ejaz M. Shahid, Syed Asad Raza Gardezi


This paper describes the development of a turbocharged direct-injection compression ignition (CI) engine model using fluid-dynamic engine simulation codes through a simulating tool known as GT Power. The model was first fueled with diesel, and then with various blends of biodiesel and diesel by allotting suitable parameters to predict an optimum blended fuel. During the optimization, main focus was on the engine performance, combustion, and one of the major regulated gaseous pollutants known as oxides of nitrogen (NOx). The combustion parameters such as Premix Duration (DP), Main Duration (DM), Premix Fraction (FP), Main Exponent (EM) and ignition delay (ID) affect the start of injection (SOI) angle, and thus played significant role in the prediction of optimum blended fuel. The SOI angle ranging from 5.2 to 5.7 degree crank angle (DCA) measured before top dead center (TDC) revealed an optimum biodiesel-diesel blend known as B20 (20% biodiesel and 80% diesel by volume). B20 exhibited the minimum possible NOx emissions, better combustion and acceptable engine performance. Moreover, experiments were performed to validate the simulated results by fueling the engine with B20 fuel and operating it on AC electrical dynamometer. Both the experimental and simulated results were in good agreement revealing maximum deviations of only 3%, 3.4%, 4.2%, and 5.1% for NOx, maximum combustion pressure (MCP), engine brake power (BP), and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), respectively. Meanwhile, a positive correlation was found between MCP and NOx showing that both the parameters are higher at lower speeds, relative to higher engine speeds.

Full Text:



Turrio-Baldassarri, L., Battistelli, C.L., Conti, L., Crebelli, R., Berardis, B.D., Iamiceli, A.L., Gambino, M., and Iannaccone, S., “Emission comparison of urban bus engine fueled with diesel oil and biodiesel blend”, Science of the Total Environment, 327 (2004), 147–162

Jung, H., Kittleson, D.B., and Zachariah, M.R., “Characteristics of SME biodiesel-fueled diesel particle emissions and the kinetics of oxidation”, Environmental Science and Technology, 40 (2006), 4949-4955.

Shah, A.N., Yunshan, G., Jian-wei, T., Chao, H., “Effects of biodiesel from soybean oil on the exhaust emissions of a turbocharged diesel engine”, Pakistan Journal of scientific and industrial research, 52 (2009), 217-227.

Szybist, J.P., Song, J., Alam, M., and Boehman, A.L., “Biodiesel combustion, emissions and emission control”, Fuel Process Technology, 88 (2007), 679-691.

Karabektas, M., Ergen, G., and Hosoz, M., “The effects of preheated cottonseed oil methyl ester on the performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine”, Applied Thermal Engineering, 28 (2008), 2136-2143.

Shah, A.N., Yunshan, G., Jian-wei, T., Zhi-hua, L., Hong, Zhao., “Controlling of NOx emitted from a diesel engine fueled on biodiesel”, Journal of Beijing Institute of Technology, 19 (2010), 305-311.

Cipolat, D., “Analysis of energy release and NOx emissions of a CI engine fuelled on diesel and DME”, Applied Thermal Engineering, 27 (2007), 2095-2103.

Ferguson, C.R., and Kirkpatrick, A.T., “Internal Combustion Engines-Applied Thermo Sciences”, second edition, John Wiley & Sons Inc., 2001.

Shah, A.N., Yun-shan, G., and Chao, H., “Combustion and emission response of a heavy duty diesel engine fuelled with biodiesel: An experimental study”, Mehran University Research Journal of Engineering & Technology, 29 (2010), 195-204.

Gamma Technologies, GT-Power User Manual and Tutorial, Version 6.1, August 2004.

Morel, T., Keribar, R., and Leonard, A., “Virtual Engine/Powertrain/Vehicle Simulation Tool Solves Complex Interacting System Issues”, Society of Automotive Engineering (SAE) Technical Paper Series No. 2003-01-0372, USA, 2003.

Keribar, R., Ciesla, C.R., and Morel, T., “Engine/Powertrains/Vehicle Modeling Tool Applicable to all Stages of the Design Process”, Society of Automotive Engineering (SAE) Technical Paper Series No. 2000-01-0934, USA, 2000.

Chen, S.K., and Flynn, P.F., “Development of a single cylinder compression ignition research engine”, Society of Automotive Engineering (SAE) Technical Paper Series No. 650733, USA, 1965.

Woschni, G., “Universally applicable equation for the instantaneous heat transfer coefficient in the internal combustion engine”, Society of Automotive Engineering (SAE) Technical Paper Series No. 670931, USA, 1967.

Choi, C.Y., Bower, G.R., Reitz, R.D., “Effects of biodiesel blended fuels and multiple injections on D.I. diesel engines”, SAE Technical Paper Series No. 970218, USA, 1995.

McDonald, J.F., Purcell, D.L., McClure, B.T., and Kittelson, D.B., “Emission characteristics of soy methyl ester fuels in an IDI compression ignition engine”, Society of Automotive Engineering (SAE) Technical Paper Series No. 950400, USA, 1997.

Shah, A.N., Yun-shan, G., Chao, H., and Baluch, A.H., “Effect of biodiesel on the performance and combustion parameters of a turbocharged compression ignition engine”, Pakistan Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 4 (2009), 34–42.

Copyright (c) 2016 Asad Naeem Shah

Powered By KICS